callosobruchus chinensis economic importance

Larvae of C. maculatus are more competitive than those of C. chinensis (Kishi et al., 2009), and abundant oviposition by C. maculatus females in the previous generation may have intensified larval competition and therefore decreased C. chinensis abundance. S‐map gives the regression coefficient, which is a measure of how sensitively the predictee changes with slight changes in a focal variable for each time point (i.e., an element of Jacobian). A study that exploited between‐population phenotypic variance suggested that the genital spines induce the genital damage via interspecific copulation, causing the reproductive interference (Kyogoku & Sota, 2015). D. K. conceived the study, conducted the experiments and data analyses, and drafted the paper. The influence from C. chinensis to C. maculatus, estimated with optimal embedding parameters, showed more varying and larger (often positive) effects in polygamous than in monogamous treatment (variance: F40,60 = 83.21, p < 0.0001; mean: |t40.65| = 3.83, p = 0.002, Figure 4b, Table S2). They imposed enforced lifelong monogamy or ancestral polygamy to replicated experimental evolution lines of C. chinensis for 17 generations. 2012) and is an important economic crop in China (Zong et al. Data Availability Statement:: The data underlying this study is available on Dryad (DOI:https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.96q5g80). (13J01115) and a Grant‐in‐Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) to M.K. Daisuke Kyogoku, Research Institute for Food and Agriculture, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2194, Japan. All data analyses were performed using R software (ver. Larvae grow inside a dry bean, which the larvae eat. In the univariate simplex projection for polygamous C. chinensis, the forecast skill was highest with the embedding dimension E = 5, the embedding lag τ = 1, and the time to predict TP = 3. INTRODUCTION Black gram or urad (Vigna mungo Linnaeus) is one of the important pulse crops in India. This result may imply that the past evolutionary history influenced the population dynamics of interspecific competition in an unexpected way. For example, whereas sexually selected C. chinensis may outcompete C. maculatus, sexually nonselected C. chinensis may be outcompeted by C. maculatus. Males are indiscriminate in many taxa, and consequently heterospecific mating interactions, such as persistent interspecific courtship, interspecific copulation with poor mechanical matching, or hybridization can reduce the population growth of the species involved (Burdfield‐Steel & Shuker, 2011; Gröning & Hochkirch, 2008; Kyogoku, 2015). Our EDM analysis was based on two replications from each treatment, with relatively short time series. Because different parameter sets were estimated for polygamous and monogamous treatments for both species, direct within‐species comparison of S‐map coefficients between treatments was difficult. For EDM analysis, we used the rEDM package (ver. Behavioral mechanisms of interspecific interactions vary in the time lag from the behavioral interaction to the occurrence of its demographic effect (Kawatsu & Kishi, 2018). For example, sexual selection under polygamy may have selected for active locomotion (e.g., to encounter females frequently; see also Martinossi‐Allibert, Thilliez, Arnqvist, & Berger, 2018). 2010). We evaluated the convergence of cross‐mapping skill by nonparametric bootstrap and searched the optimal time lag for prediction l. We also estimated the rate of false positive by cross‐mapping our data to that of Kishi et al. (2009). Because frequent heterospecific encounter and consequently frequent interspecific copulation intensifies reproductive interference (Kyogoku & Nishida, 2013), it is possible that the locomotor activity underlies the evolution of reproductive interference capability under polygamy. The estimated time lag of 3 or 4 weeks for this effect corresponds to their generation time, suggesting larval resource competition as the underlying mechanism (Kawatsu & Kishi, 2018). This indicates that the extinction risk ratio of polygamous lines compared to monogamous lines may have been higher at early stages of competition than later.

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